Anthropology 370
Bioarchaeology
Mid-term Paper:     Did Neanderthals use their teeth as tools?       
Due: 3/11


     In this paper you should discuss whether Neanderthals used their teeth for purposes other than chewing food. In order to investigate this topic you will need to perform an independent literature search using WILEY Interscience and JSTOR, as well as browsing journals available in the library. The paper is expected to be 5-7 pages long (Times New Roman 12pt, 1'' margins, double spaced). While you can decide on the specifics of the organization of your own paper, it should include introduction, discussion, and conclusion sections, as well as "References Cited."
     Your name and the title of the paper should appear on a separate cover page (not included in the page count).
     The "References Cited" section should follow the main body of the paper, beginning on a separate page (and also not be included in the page count). All references should be properly cited in-text and listed after the main body of the paper. Although many formatting standards exist, here you are required to follow the format established by the American Journal of Physical Anthropology. Papers cited in text should appear as

. . . analysis by Ward (2001) reveal . . .
. . . studies by Corner and Richtsmeier (2004) reveal . . .
. . . studies by Little et al. (1993) reveal . . .
. . . an earlier report (Hutchinson, 1999:16) . . .
. . . earlier reports (Arriaza et al., 2000; Paoli et al., 2002; Ross, 2003) . . .

     In the "References Cited" section all cited papers should be listed in alphabetical order:

Coppa A, Cucina A, Mancinelli D, Vargiu R, Calcagno JM. 1998. Dental anthropology of central-southern Iron Age Italy: the evidence of metric versus nonmetric traits. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 107:371-386.
Gruner O. 1993. Identification of skulls: A historical review and practical applications. In: Iscan MY, Helmer RP, editors. Forensic analysis of the skull. New York: Wiley-Liss. p 2945.

Please, refer to American Journal of Physical Anthropology publications with respect to other formatting standards. I will be very strict in taking points off for improper formatting; submitting a paper to a journal or a proposal to a granting agency with improperly formatted references is common grounds for rejection without review.

     You should not insert pictures from other publications into your paper. These are copyrighted materials. Using them without the publisher's permission is construed as plagiarism. You should also avoid using direct quotations and use your own words to convey the content of the papers that you discuss.

     Your grade for the paper will be determined by the following criteria:
          1) Literature coverage (1 pt for each paper discussed; maximum 5 pts + extra-credit points for each additional paper);
          2) Citation (reference format, consistency; maximum 5 pts);
          3) Content (How much detail was provided, how specific and in-depth the argument is; maximum 10 pts);
          4) Discussion (Critical evaluation of the literature, integration of the literature discussed; maximum 10 pts);
          5) Structure (maximum 5 pts);
          6) Clarity and grammar (maximum 5 pts). Total: 40 pts (40-36pts=A; 35-32pts=B; 31-28=C; 27-24=D; less than 24 ->F).

Be prepared to discuss the topic of your paper in class. We will spend the entire class period on October 20 discussing whether Neanderthals used their teeth as tools. If you miss this class meeting or if you are not prepared for the discussion, you will not receive more than 32pts -- 80% of the grade -- for your paper and you will also lose discussion points for that class period.