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ALVERO, ALICIA

BODNAR, RICHARD

BOROD, JOAN

BROWN, BRUCE

BRUMBAUGH, CLAUDIA

BRUMBERG, JOSHUA

CHACKO, ANIL

CROLL, SUSAN

FAN, JIN

FIELDS, LANNY

FIENUP, DANIEL

FOLDI, NANCY

HALPERIN, JEFFREY

HEMMES, NANCY

JOHNSON, RAY

JONES, EMILY

LANSON, ROBERT

LI, ANDREA

NOMURA, YOKO

PYTTE, CAROLYN

RAMSEY, PHILLIP

RANALDI, ROBERT

SNEED, JOEL

STORBECK, JUSTIN

STURMEY, PETER

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Pharmacology and Neuroanatomy of Conditioned Flavor Preferences

Animals use flavor cues (taste, odor, texture) to guide their selection of nutritious foods and avoidance of toxic foods. One type of learning, called flavor-flavor conditioning, occurs when a preference is acquired for an arbitrary flavor cue (e.g., banana) paired with an already liked flavor (e.g., sweet taste of saccharin). The sweet taste is considered to be an unconditioned stimulus (US) that reinforces the animal’s preference for the added flavor, which represents the conditioned stimulus (CS). In a decade-long collaboration with the laboratory of Dr. Anthony Sclafani (Brooklyn College, CUNY), we evaluated the pharmacology and neuroanatomy of these conditioned flavor preferences with our laboratory examining oral consequences (flavor-flavor conditioning) and the Sclafani laboratory examining post-ingestive consequences (flavor-nutrient conditioning). Flavor-flavor conditioning can be investigated in two ways: a) comparing preferences for a sucrose-paired flavor (the CS+) relative to a saccharin-paired flavor (the CS-) using a sham-feeding procedure in which rats fitted with a gastric cannula to reduce the post-oral actions of sucrose; and b) comparing preferences for a combined fructose/saccharin-paired flavor (the CS+) relative to a saccharin-paired flavor (the CS-) using real-feeding rats because fructose has minimal post-oral flavor conditioning effects.

In initial systemic studies, our laboratories found a role for dopamine, and particularly D1 receptors mediating the acquisition and expression of flavor-flavor conditioning using sucrose and fructose, and a role for D1 receptors in the acquisition of flavor-nutrient conditioning. In contrast, although systemic opioid receptor antagonism with naltrexone reduced sweet intake per se, it failed to alter the acquisition or expression of either flavor-flavor or flavor-nutrient conditioning. Systemic antagonism of cannabinoid CB1 receptors produced moderate reductions in the expression of flavor-flavor conditioning. Our laboratories received NIH (NIDDK) funding to explore the neuroanatomical substrates of flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient conditioning by performing antagonist studies in the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, lateral hypothalamus and medial prefrontal cortex. These flavor-flavor conditioning studies are currently ongoing in our laboratory.

Conditioned Flavor Preference Publications of the Bodnar Laboratory:

Bonacchi K, K Ackroff, K Touzani, RJ Bodnar and A Sclafani. Opioid mediation of starch and sugar preference in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 96: 507-514, 2010.

Touzani K, RJ Bodnar and A Sclafani. Acquisition of glucose-conditioned flavor preference requires the activation of dopamine D1-like receptors within the medial prefrontal cortex in rats. Neurobiol Lng Mem 94: 214-219, 2010.

Touzani K, RJ Bodnar and A Sclafani. Pharmacology of food learning preferences. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 97: 55-62, 2010.

Bernal S, K Touzani, M Gerges, Y Abayev, A Sclafani and RJ Bodnar. Examination of naltrexone effects in the nucleus accumberns shell and core upon flavor-flavor preferences conditioned by fructose and flavor-nutrient preferences conditioned by intragastric glucose in rats. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 95: 56-62, 2010.

Bernal S, K Touzani, M Gerges, Y Abayev, A Sclafani and RJ Bodnar. Examination of naltrexone effects in the nucleus accumberns shell and core upon flavor-flavor preferences conditioned by fructose and flavor-nutrient preferences conditioned by intragastric glucose in rats. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., in review, 2009.

Touzani, K, RJ Bodnar and A Sclafani. A role of the lateral hypothalamic dopamine D1 receptors in intragastric glucose-conditioned flavor preferences in rats. Neurobiol. Learning Mem. 92: 464-467, 2009.

Touzani, K, RJ Bodnar and A Sclafani. Dopamine D1-like receptor antagonism in amygdala impairs the acquisition of glucose-conditioned flavor preferences in rats. Eur J Neurosci.30: 289-298, 2009.

Bernal S, P Miner, Y Abayev, E Kandova, M Gerges, K Touzani, A Sclafani and RJ Bodnar. Role of amygdala dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the acquisition and expression of fructose-conditioned flavor preferences in rats. Behav Brain Res. 205: 183-190, 2009.

Miner, P, Y Abayev, E Kandova, M Gerges, T Styler, R Wapniak, K Touzani, A Sclafani and RJ Bodnar. Role of systemic endocannabinoids CB-1 receptor antagonism in the acquisition and expression of fructose-conditioned flavor-flavor preferences in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90: 318-324, 2008.

Bernal S, I Dostova, A Kest, Y Abayev, E Kandova, K Touzani, A Sclafani and RJ Bodnar. Role of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell on the acquisition and expression of fructose-conditioned flavor-flavor preferences in rats. Behav Brain Res. 190: 59-66, 2008.

Touzani K, RJ Bodnar, and A Sclafani. Activation of dopamine D1 receptors in nucleus accumbens is critical for the acquisition, but not the expression, of glucose-conditioned flavor preference in rats. Eur J Neurosci 27: 1525-1533, 2008.

Baker, RW, Y Li, MG Lee, A Sclafani and RJ Bodnar. Naltrexone does not prevent acquisition or expression of flavor preferences conditioned by fructose in rats. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 78: 239-246, 2004.

Baker, RM, MJ Shah, A Sclafani and RJ Bodnar. Dopamine D-1 and D-2 antagonists reduce the acquisition and expression of flavor preferences conditioned by fructose in rats. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 75: 55-65, 2003.

Baker, RW, J Osman and RJ Bodnar. Differential actions of dopamine receptor antagonism in rats upon food intake elicited by either mercaptoacetate or exposure to a high-fat diet. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 69: 201-208, 2001.

Azzara, AV, RJ Bodnar, AR Delamater and A Sclafani. D1 but not D2 dopamine receptor antagonism blocks the acquisition of a flavor preference conditioned by intragastric carbohydrate infusions. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 68: 709-720, 2001.

Azzara, AV, RJ Bodnar , AR Delamater and A Sclafani. Naltrexone fails to block the acquisition or expression of a flavor preference conditioned by intragastric carbohydrate infusions. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 67: 545-557, 2000.

Yu, W-Z, RM Silva, A Sclafani, AR Delamater and RJ Bodnar. Dopamine receptor subtype antagonists reduce the expression, but not the acquisition of flavor preference conditioning in sham-feeding rats. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 67: 537-544, 2000.

Delamater, AR, A Sclafani and RJ Bodnar. Pharmacology of sucrose-reinforced place preference conditioning: effects of naltrexone. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 65: 697-704, 2000.

Yu, W-Z, RM Silva, A Sclafani, AR Delamater and RJ Bodnar. Pharmacology of flavor preference conditioning in sham-feeding rats: effects of dopamine receptor antagonists. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 65: 635-647, 2000.

Yu, W-Z, A Sclafani, AR Delamater and RJ Bodnar. Pharmacology of flavor preference conditioning in sham-feeding rats: effects of naltrexone. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 64: 573-584, 1999.